“I would like to reaffirm India’s commitment to pursue green path to growth through Research Innovation and Joint Collaboration.”
– Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science & Technology and Earth Sciences
The Government of India has committed to support clean energy research and is pursuing a greener path to growth. The Government has announced an ambitious plan to deploy 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022, which includes 100 GW of solar, 60 GW of wind, 10 GW from biomass, and 5 GW of small hydropower. The Government has also embarked on a major mission for construction of 100 Smart Cities that will use both renewables and energy efficient technologies. The government also has a target of 20% blending of biofuels by 2017.
The Government is making a concerted effort to enhance the pace of innovation and scale of transformation in support of a clean energy revolution to meet the requirements and goals for India’s economic and energy security in a timely manner. This will be achieved by:
Key government departments engaged in research, development, and demonstration of clean energy are:
To meet the ambitious national target for a green path to growth, there is a major focus on accelerating innovation research and demonstration in clean energy, which is being supported in the public and private sectors through research institutions, universities, and laboratories in priority areas.
For R&D and demonstration projects, grants are provided to academic institutions, research organizations, specialized centres, and industry. Strengthening existing R&D centres and setting up specialized centres in high technology areas is considered and linkages between the organizations/agencies undertaking technology development and the user organizations are established. Transfer of know-how is facilitated to industry. With a view to achieve global competitiveness, participation by industry in R&D and technology development is encouraged with increased investment by industry.
International scientific and technical cooperation in the area of clean energy is established in accordance with national priorities and socio-economic development strategies and goals. Modalities of such cooperation include joint research and technology development, field studies, pilot-scale plants, and demonstration projects with active involvement of research institutions and industry on either side. Technology induction and transfer is facilitated, wherever necessary, with time-bound goals for indigenization and local manufacturing. Appropriate bilateral and multilateral cooperation programs for sharing of technologies and funding are developed. Participation in international partnerships, wherever necessary, is also explored.
Specific plans to double clean energy R&D investment involve intensifying research efforts on:
Areas of emphasis for Mission Innovation clean energy R&D include the following: energy efficiency (industry; residential and commercial buildings, appliances and equipment; transport); renewable energy sources (solar energy, on-shore wind energy, off-shore wind energy, ocean energy, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydroelectricity, other renewable energy sources); hydrogen and fuel cells; other power and storage technologies (electric power generation including advanced but non-renewable; electricity transmission and distribution; energy storage; non-transport applications; smart grids); and other cross-cutting technologies or research (energy system analysis, basic energy research that cannot be allocated to a specific category).
Following the launch of Mission Innovation, the Department of Science and Technology (DST) announced a new Initiative to Promote Habitat Energy Efficiency (I-PHEE). I-PHEE is focused on promoting R&D activities to improve energy performance of buildings and cities and support enhancement of knowledge and practice to save energy in design, construction, and operation of human habitats. The program will support specific outcome-based research in the areas of energy efficient building envelope technologies, low energy cooling systems, daylighting and electric lighting, building automation and controls for energy savings and research. More information about this program can be found here.
The government has announced the launch of a mission on utilisation of methanol and other cleaner alternate fuels for transportation including road, rail, and waterways. The government also mounted a National Mission on Electric Mobility which envisages R&D programme on setting up Technology Platform on Electric Mobility (TPEM). DST initiated steps to keep a close watch on the innovations in the field of “Electric Mobility” in support of the manufacture of vehicles under the “Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (hybrid) Electric Vehicles (FAME)” scheme of the Department of Heavy Industry (DHI). More information about the programme can be found here.
The National Policy on Biofuels mandates a blending of biofuels of approximately 20% by 2017. This is an ambitious target and R&D for new technology and feedstock is being supported to achieve this. The Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy have placed a special focus on algal biofuel as an area of interest in Mission Innovation. Department of Biotechnology (DBT) has established four Bioenergy Research Centres in the country that integrate basic and translational science capabilities for biofuel development and scale up. The major focus has been on cellulosic ethanol and algal biofuel.
The four centres of excellence each specializing in their own areas are:
DBT established network of more than 100 scientists working to realize the goals of National Biofuel Policy with research publication and patents for generated knowledge and developed technologies.
Development and demonstration of technologies on conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to ethanol has also been accelerated by setting up a demonstration plant of capacity 10T biomass/day. The Bioenergy program includes establishing a major network of programs on algal biofuels. There are three repositories with more than 2,000 cultures that may be available for the algal biofuel program. This has been identified as an area for both bilateral and multilateral cooperation. More information can be found here. Details on the Bioenergy Roadmap Vision 2020 can be found here.
Various projects under clean energy provide to industries through Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council an interface agency of DBT to strengthen and empower the emerging Biotech enterprise.
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is working on a solar wind hybrid policy, in which wind and solar can be co-located to maximize the utilization of transmission systems, reducing cost and increasing efficiency. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is also working to develop solar floaters indigenously. More information about the wind power program can be found here and more information about the solar mission can be found here.
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Hydrogen Energy Program is embarking upon the National Hydrogen Energy Road Map. This program supports research, development, and demonstration projects on various aspects of hydrogen energy including its production, storage and use as a fuel for generation for mechanical, thermal and electrical energy. More information about the Hydrogen Energy Program can be found here. The Department of Science and Technology is also embarking upon a national mission to utilize methanol and di-methyl ether as cleaner fuels in automobiles and fuel for fuel-cell based vehicles.
With Mission Innovation, the Department of Science and Technology has developed plans to set up demand-oriented mission programs on clean coal technologies and has launched a national mission with plans to set up material research centres on advanced ultra-supercritical technologies.
More information can be found here.
The Ministry of Power is supporting research initiatives in carbon capture and utilization. Research initiatives include the development of modified amines for carbon capture to increase the efficiency of capture and utilization of fuel gas for algae generation.
The Department of Science and Technology is setting up a clean energy centre for integration of intermittent renewables with suitable energy storage in on grid or off grid situations.
The Ministry of Power is working on flow batteries, which have larger potential for energy storage and are more efficient. A new programme focussed on development of materials for energy storage has also been initiated by DST. More information about the programme can be found here.
Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB) under the aegis of DST is mandated to promote basic research in all domains. Besides several individual-centric projects, SERB has funded advanced research centres in the area of improved combustion and battery technologies. Department of Biotechnology has been supporting fundamental research on innovative approaches that lead to intensification of biofuel. Emphasis has been on feedstock improvement (microalgae) and biochemical processes for conversion of biomass to biofuels and production of biofuel molecules/hydrocarbons using synthetic biology and genetic engineering, hydrogen production from autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms.
Government of India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), and Department of Science and Technology (DST) currently has several centres of excellence dedicated to solar, wind, bioenergy and biofuel. As part of Mission Innovation, the Government has developed proposals for upgrading existing centres of excellence while also looking to create a centre for new energy. Through Mission Innovation, the Government hopes to expand on current collaborations, both international and between the public and private sectors, to ensure that the centres of excellence are not limited to just the Indian public sector, but bringing in the private sector and other countries.
As part of Mission Innovation, the Department of Science and Technology is also setting up technical research centres on energy and has plans to set up two virtual centres on energy material research at the Indian Institute of Science and International Advanced Centre of Research (ARCI), a DST institute at Hyderabad. Department of Biotechnology has planned to start a mission program on Algal Biofuel and Waste to Energy.
The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) also propose to set up Bioenergy based Incubation Centre to interface Academia and Industry and also nurture start-ups. Grand Challenges initiatives are proposed to be launched.
Baseline has been worked out on the data available for each of the priorities sector identified under Mission Innovation for fiscal year 2014-15 (base year) this includes all Government funding by different Department/Ministries for research, development demonstration activities.
Research, Development and Demonstration in environmentally friendly, clean energy technologies including renewable energy, energy efficiency, Clean fossil technologies, electric grid technologies and advanced transportation systems and fuels and other crosscutting technologies. Investments are made through various models of joint collaboration involving Public Private Sector, National Laboratories, Universities and International Partners.
|Industry & buildings||
|Vehicles & other transportation||
|Bio-based fuels & energy||
|Solar, wind & other renewables||
|Hydrogen & fuel cells||
|Cleaner fossil energy||
|CO2 capture, utilization & storage||
|Basic energy research||
Indicators are for key areas of Mission Innovation R&D investment but do not imply a comprehensive representation of a country’s full R&D portfolio.