“I would like to reaffirm India’s commitment to pursue green path to growth through Research Innovation and Joint Collaboration.”
– Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister for Science & Technology & Earth Sciences and Environment, Forest & Climate Change
India recognizes the serious nature and significant scale of the energy-related challenges facing the country and globe . Energy security, reduced pollution, access to electricity for our people who currently lack it, and reduced emissions are some of issues which Indian government considers necessary for reducing the worst impacts of climate change. Meeting these challenges on a global scale will require significantly increased and innovative effort to develop clean energy technologies and reduce their costs so that they can become widely accessible and affordable. For this Government of India considers international cooperation essential and thus was one of the first few countries to join Mission Innovation.
India along with other member countries has agreed to double its investments in span of 5 years on development of clean energy technologies over the base investments of 2015. The additional resources will be deployed to develop our country specific clean energy technologies in chosen priority areas so as to provide affordable clean and sustainable energy to its citizen. This will see a fundamental change on the energy utilization , reducing the density of energy consumption, developing and deploying alternate energy sources and supporting low carbon technologies.
The Government has announced an ambitious plan to deploy 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022, which includes 100 GW of solar, 60 GW of wind, 10 GW from biomass, and 5 GW of small hydropower. The Government has also embarked on a major mission for construction of 100 Smart Cities that will use both renewables and energy efficient technologies. The government also has a target of 20% blending of biofuels in the transport fuels.
The Government is making a concerted effort to enhance the pace of innovation and scale of transformation in support of a clean energy revolution to meet the requirements and goals for India’s economic and energy security in a timely manner. This will be achieved by:
There are several key government departments and research agencies engaged in research, development, and demonstration of clean energy and the major contributors are:
To meet the ambitious national target for a green path to growth, R&D and demonstration projects are supported through grants and in some case for setting up specialized centres in high technology areas. These special centresdevelop linkages between the organizations/agencies undertaking technology development and the user organizations and transfer of know-how is thus facilitated to industry. With a view to achieve global competitiveness, participation by industry in R&D and technology development is encouraged with increased investment by industry.
International scientific and technical cooperation in the area of clean energy is established in accordance with national priorities and socio-economic development strategies and goals. Modalities of such cooperation include joint research and technology development, field studies, pilot-scale plants, and demonstration projects with active involvement of research institutions and industry on either side. Technology induction and transfer is facilitated, wherever necessary, with time-bound goals for indigenization and local manufacturing. Appropriate bilateral and multilateral cooperation programs for sharing of technologies and funding are developed. Participation in international partnerships and exchange of scientists, wherever necessary, is also explored.
Specific plans to double clean energy R&D investment involve intensifying research efforts on:
Areas of emphasis for Mission Innovation clean energy R&D include the following: energy efficiency (industry; residential and commercial buildings, appliances and equipment; transport); renewable energy sources (solar energy, on-shore wind energy, off-shore wind energy, ocean energy, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydroelectricity, other renewable energy sources); Hydrogen and fuel cells; other power and storage technologies (electric power generation including advanced but non-renewable; electricity transmission and distribution; energy storage; non-transport applications; smart grids); and other cross-cutting technologies in Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage or research (energy system analysis, basic energy research that cannot be allocated to a specific category).
Following the launch of Mission Innovation, the Department of Science and Technology (DST) announced a new Initiative to Promote Habitat Energy Efficiency (I-PHEE). I-PHEE is focused on promoting R&D activities to improve energy performance of buildings and cities and support enhancement of knowledge and practice to save energy in design, construction, and operation of human habitats. The program will support specific outcome-based research in the areas of energy efficient building envelope technologies, low energy cooling systems, day-lighting and electric lighting, building automation and controls for energy savings and research.
Research priorities include:
India has most ambitious programme of transport fuel quality upgradation for reducing the emissions both by using better fuels and modern technology vehicles. Whole country is now supplies BS-IV ( Euro-IV) fuel quality which saw an investment of Rs 60,000 crores ( approx US$ 9.1 b ) .In a major shift Govt. has decided to jump ti BS VI ( Euro VI) fuel quality by 2020 which will see additional investment of Rs 28,000 crores ( US$ 4.4 b ) in refineries upgradation (petroleum.nic.in). Along side the vehicles are also been upgraded with most vehicles having catalytic convertors and meeting at-least BS IV emission norms.
The government has introduced bioethanol and biodiesel in transport fuels and also use of CNG in diesel vehicles for reducing emissions. The government also mounted a National Mission on Electric Mobility which envisages R&D programme on setting up Technology Platform on Electric Mobility (TPEM). DST initiated steps to keep a close watch on the innovations in the field of “Electric Mobility” in support of the manufacture of vehicles under the “Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (hybrid) Electric Vehicles (FAME)” scheme of the Department of Heavy Industry (DHI).
The National Policy on Biofuels mandates a blending of biofuels of approximately 20% of biofuels in transport fuels. This is an ambitious target and several steps have been undertaken to broad-base the feedstock for biofuel production.and R&D for new technology and feedstock is being supported to achieve this. The Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy have placed a special focus on algal biofuel as an area of interest in Mission Innovation. Department of Biotechnology (DBT) has established four Bioenergy Research Centres in the country that integrate basic and translational science capabilities for biofuel development and scale up. The major focus has been on cellulosic ethanol and algal biofuel. Early results of these centres are encouraging and demo scale technologies for cellulosic ethanohave been established in country. Based upon this success , Government of India has decided to set up several large commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants usind waste agricultural resides as the feedstock. Six of these , about 400 ton feed per day , plants are approved by major oil marketing companies based upon indigenous technology and are likely to be operational by by Q2 of 2019.
The four centres of excellence each specializing in their own areas are:
Capacity Building in Bioenergy
DBT established network of more than 100 scientists working to realize the goals of National Biofuel Policy with high quality research publication and patents for generated knowledge and developed technologies.
The Bioenergy program also includes establishing a major network of programs on algal biofuels. There are three repositories with more than 2,000 cultures that may be available for the algal biofuel program. This has been identified as an area for both bilateral and multilateral cooperation. Details on the Bioenergy Roadmap Vision 2020 can be found at www.dbtindia.nic.in.
Various projects under clean energy are provided to industries through Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council an interface agency of DBT to strengthen and empower the emerging Biotech enterprise. (www.birac.dbt.nic.in)
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is working on a solar wind hybrid policy, in which wind and solar can be co-located to maximize the utilization of transmission systems, reducing cost and increasing efficiency. They are also working to develop solar floaters indigenously. More information about the wind power program can be found (http://niwe.res.in) and more information about the solar mission can be found (http://nise.res.in).
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Hydrogen Energy Program is embarking upon the National Hydrogen Energy Road Map. This program supports research, development, and demonstration projects on various aspects of hydrogen energy including its production, storage and use as a fuel for generation for mechanical, thermal and electrical energy. More information about the Hydrogen Energy Program can be found (www.mnre.gov.in). The Department of Science and Technology is also embarking upon a national mission to utilize methanol and di-methyl ether as cleaner fuels in automobiles and fuel for fuel-cell based vehicles. Indianoil R&D centre has established a Hyrogen dispensing station and vehicles on Hydrogen are tested for endurance . This centre has also patented a technology to produce mixture of Hydrogen and methane by partial catalytic reforming of natural gas for fueling vehicles to reduce emissions.(www.iocl.com)
With Mission Innovation, the Department of Science and Technology has developed plans to set up demand-oriented mission programs on clean coal technologies and has launched a national mission with plans to set up material research centres on advanced ultra-supercritical technologies. National programme on fuel quality upgradation for transport fuels , as detailed above, has helped greatly in reducing vehicular emissions. Biomass pyrolysis in combination with coal and petcoke and subsequent hydrotreating of the oil has been taken up by several institutes to produce clean sulphur free drop in fuels. (www.iocl.com)
A consortium has been formed among NTPC, BHEL and IGCAR –Kalpakkam for the indigenous development of Advanced Ultra Super Critical technology for high efficiency thermal power plants in India.
Carbon dioxide capture, utilization and storage
Out of these three components , India has not much experience or large projects on carbon dioxide storage. However, Indian companies in power and oil sectors would like to collaborate in this area.
Carbon capture technologies either by growing algae or by capture in solvents / adsorbents have been studied by several institutes .
A large number of basic research projects have been undertaken in carbon dioxide value addition. Some of the priority areas are :
The Department of Science and Technology is setting up a clean energy centre for integration of intermittent renewables with suitable energy storage in on grid or off grid situations. (www.dst.gov.in)
The Ministry of Power is working on flow batteries, which have larger potential for energy storage and are more efficient. A large programme focussed on development of materials for hydrogen storage has also been initiated by DST (www.dst.gov.in) and MNRE (www.mnre.gov.in).
Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB) under the aegis of DST is mandated to promote basic research in all domains. Besides several individual-centric projects, SERB has funded advanced research centres in the area of improved combustion and battery technologies. Department of Biotechnology has been supporting fundamental research on innovative approaches that lead to intensification of biofuel. Emphasis has been on feedstock improvement (microalgae) and biochemical processes for conversion of biomass to biofuels and production of biofuel molecules/hydrocarbons using synthetic biology and genetic engineering, hydrogen production from autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms. Similar projects of basic research are also funded by CSIR . However all basic research projects funded in clean energy area are focused and linked to eventual development of corresponding technologies and projects are closely monitored and reviewed.
Baseline has been worked out on the data available for each of the priorities sector identified under Mission Innovation for fiscal year 2014-15 (base year) this includes all Government funding by different Department/Ministries for research, development demonstration activities.
Research, Development and Demonstration in environmentally friendly, clean energy technologies including renewable energy, energy efficiency, Clean fossil technologies, electric grid technologies and advanced transportation systems and fuels and other crosscutting technologies. Investments are made through various models of joint collaboration involving Public Private Sector, National Laboratories, Universities and International Partners.
|Industry & buildings||
|Vehicles & other transportation||
|Bio-based fuels & energy||
|Solar, wind & other renewables||
|Hydrogen & fuel cells||
|Cleaner fossil energy||
|CO2 capture, utilization & storage||
|Basic energy research||
Indicators are for key areas of Mission Innovation R&D investment but do not imply a comprehensive representation of a country’s full R&D portfolio.