Member Participation

India

Narrative

“I would like to reaffirm India’s commitment to pursue green path to growth through Research Innovation and Joint Collaboration.”
– Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister for Science & Technology & Earth Sciences and Environment, Forest & Climate Change

India recognizes the serious nature and significant scale of the energy-related challenges facing the country and globe . Energy security, reduced pollution, access to electricity for our people who currently lack it, and reduced emissions are some of issues which Indian government considers necessary for reducing the  worst impacts of climate change. Meeting these challenges on a global scale will require significantly increased and innovative effort to develop clean energy technologies and reduce their costs so that they can become widely accessible and affordable. For this Government of India considers international cooperation essential and thus was one of the first few countries to join Mission Innovation.

India along with other member countries has agreed to double its investments in span of 5 years on development of clean energy technologies over the base investments of 2015.. The additional resources will be deployed to develop our country specific clean energy technologies in chosen priority areas so as to provide affordable clean and sustainable energy to its citizen. This will see a fundamental change on the energy utilization , reducing the density of energy consumption, developing and deploying alternate energy sources and supporting low carbon technologies.

The Government has announced an ambitious plan to deploy 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022, which includes 100 GW of solar, 60 GW of wind, 10 GW from biomass, and 5 GW of small hydropower. The Government has also embarked on a major mission for construction of 100 Smart Cities that will use both renewables and energy efficient technologies. The government also has a target of 20% blending of biofuels in the transport fuels.

The Government is making a concerted effort to enhance the pace of innovation and scale of transformation in support of a clean energy revolution to meet the requirements and goals for India’s economic and energy security in a timely manner. This will be achieved by:

  • Strengthening and scaling up research in existing programs
  • Enhancing international cooperation in priority areas
  • Utilizing public-private partnerships and private sector investment
  • Strengthening capacity building for specific skill requirements.

Major Funding & Implementing Agencies

There are several key government departments and research agencies engaged in research, development, and demonstration of clean energy and the major contributors are:

  • Ministry of Science & Technology (specifically Department of Biotechnology ; Department of Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
  • Universities and technical institutes like IIT’s through Ministry of Human resource Development
  • Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
  • Research institutes funded by Public Sector companies like Oil , Power, automotive sectors
  • Private sector research institutes

To meet the ambitious national target for a green path to growth, R&D and demonstration projects are supported through grants and in some case for setting up specialized centres in high technology areas. These special centresdevelop  linkages between the organizations/agencies undertaking technology development and the user organizations and  transfer of know-how is thus facilitated to industry. With a view to achieve global competitiveness, participation by industry in R&D and technology development is encouraged with increased investment by industry.

International scientific and technical cooperation in the area of clean energy is established in accordance with national priorities and socio-economic development strategies and goals. Modalities of such cooperation include joint research and technology development, field studies, pilot-scale plants, and demonstration projects with active involvement of research institutions and industry on either side. Technology induction and transfer is facilitated, wherever necessary, with time-bound goals for indigenization and local manufacturing. Appropriate bilateral and multilateral cooperation programs for sharing of technologies and funding are developed. Participation in international partnerships and exchange of scientists, wherever necessary, is also explored.

Specific plans to double clean energy R&D investment involve intensifying research efforts on:

  • Promoting India-centric innovation for clean energy proliferation
  • National, bilateral, and multilateral joint virtual centres on clean energy themes (see Department of Biotechnology and Department of Science and Technology)
  • Setting up of technology platforms led by industry for clean energy technologies
  • Scaled-up funding to academic and R&D institutions as well as R&D units in industry for research on identified topics relevant to clean energy
  • National, bilateral, and multilateral capacity building programs in clean energy
  • Demand-oriented mission programs on clean energy technologies
  • Developing models for last mile connectivity for technology leads obtained through R&D
  • Setting up demonstration models/pilot plants for developed technologies (see Department of BiotechnologyMinistry of New and Renewable Technologies, and Department of Science and Technology)
  • Working with all stakeholders to translate research outputs for end-use deployment

Research Areas of Interest & Baseline

Areas of emphasis for Mission Innovation clean energy R&D include the following: energy efficiency (industry; residential and commercial buildings, appliances and equipment; transport); renewable energy sources (solar energy, on-shore wind energy, off-shore wind energy, ocean energy, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydroelectricity, other renewable energy sources); Hydrogen and fuel cells; other power and storage technologies (electric power generation including advanced but non-renewable; electricity transmission and distribution; energy storage; non-transport applications; smart grids); and other cross-cutting technologies  in Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage or research (energy system analysis, basic energy research that cannot be allocated to a specific category).

India focus areas

Industry and Buildings

Following the launch of Mission Innovation, the Department of Science and Technology (DST) announced a new Initiative to Promote Habitat Energy Efficiency (I-PHEE). I-PHEE is focused on promoting R&D activities to improve energy performance of buildings and cities and support enhancement of knowledge and practice to save energy in design, construction, and operation of human habitats. The program will support specific outcome-based research in the areas of energy efficient building envelope technologies, low energy cooling systems, day-lighting and electric lighting, building automation and controls for energy savings and research.

Research priorities include:

  • Building envelop: Building materials and / or construction technology for walls, roofs, windows which will help reduce operational energy, increase thermal comfort, or reduce embodied energy of building.
  • Low energy cooling: Novel systems that help achieve thermal comfort, direct / indirect evaporative cooling, ground couple cooling, geothermal, passive down draft systems.
  • Buildings and cities automation and controls: Cost effective sensors, controllers, automation system hardware, and / or software to help save operational energy of buildings and cities.
  • Development of test protocols, methods, data acquisition tools and methods for building energy benchmarking or development of any scientific procedure to help derive policy, codes and standards.

Vehicles and Other Transportation

India has most ambitious programme of transport fuel quality upgradation for reducing the emissions both by using better fuels and modern technology vehicles. Whole country is now supplies BS-IV (  Euro-IV) fuel quality which saw an investment of Rs 60,000 crores ( approx US$ 9.1 b ) .In a major shift Govt. has decided to jump ti BS VI ( Euro VI) fuel quality by 2020 which will see additional investment of Rs 28,000 crores ( US$ 4.4 b ) in refineries upgradation ( www.mopng.gov.in) . Along side the vehicles are also been upgraded with most vehicles having catalytic convertors and meeting at-least BS IV emission norms.

The government has introduced bioethanol and biodiesel in transport fuels and also use of CNG in diesel vehicles for reducing emissions. The government also mounted a National Mission on Electric Mobility which envisages R&D programme on setting up Technology Platform on Electric Mobility (TPEM). DST initiated steps to keep a close watch on the innovations in the field of “Electric Mobility” in support of the manufacture of vehicles under the “Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (hybrid) Electric Vehicles (FAME)” scheme of the Department of Heavy Industry (DHI).

Bio-Based Fuels and Energy

The National Policy on Biofuels mandates a blending of biofuels of approximately 20% of biofuels in transport fuels. This is an ambitious target and several steps have been undertaken to broad-base the feedstock for biofuel production.and R&D for new technology and feedstock is being supported to achieve this. The Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy have placed a special focus on algal biofuel as an area of interest in Mission Innovation. Department of Biotechnology (DBT) has established four Bioenergy Research Centres in the country that integrate basic and translational science capabilities for biofuel development and scale up. The major focus has been on cellulosic ethanol and algal biofuel. Early results of these centres are encouraging and demo scale technologies for cellulosic ethanohave been established in country. Based upon this success , Government of India has decided to set up several large commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants usind waste agricultural resides as the feedstock. Six of these , about 400 ton feed per day , plants are approved by major oil marketing companies based upon indigenous technology and are likely to be operational by  by Q2 of 2019.

The four centres of excellence each specializing in their own areas are:

  1. DBT-ICT Centre for Energy Biosciences, Mumbai is a unique centre that integrates basic and translational science capabilities for bioprocess development and scale up. The 10 ton/day biomass demonstration facility based on the novel DBT-ICT Lignocellulosic Ethanol Technology, the development of novel ‘Hybrid Technology’ for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) and municipal liquid waste (MLW) and the commissioning of 1000L modular photobioreactors designed for autotrophy as well as mixotrophy growth of algae are some of the salient achievements for the Centre. More information on DBT-ICT can be found(www.dbt-ceb.org).
  2. DBT IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Faridabad is a finest example of collaboration of DBT with an industry. The Centre has established protocols for Life Cycle Assessment and GHG emission evaluation of all grades of biofuels. Unique process for CO2 fermentation and conversion to lipids has been carried out and a pilot is under installation. Development of enzymes needed for cellulosic ethanol is a major programme of the centre. More information on DBT IOC can be found (www.dbtiocberc.org).
  3. DBT-ICGEB Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research has been successful in developing  key technologies for ‘potent enzyme composition for biomass hydrolysis’, ‘engineered bacteria for C5 fermentation to ethanol’ and ‘engineered algae with enhanced CO2 sequestration’. Deep synthetic biology intervention led to discovery of new pathway for fatty alcohol production and CRISPR/Cas9 based genome engineering led enhanced fungal enzyme production. More information on DBT-ICGEB can be found (www.icgeb-bioenergy.org).
  4. PAN IIT Bio-energy Centre constitutes a network of 32 investigators from 5 Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) working on various thematic areas related to Bioenergy. ( www.dbtindia.nic.in )

Capacity Building in Bioenergy

  • Ten post-doctoral fellows attracted back to country under the Energy Bioscience Overseas Fellowships – They are now placed in some of the centres of excellences on bio-energy in the country.
  • Launching the Bioenergy Awards for Cutting Edge Research – India and United States have joined hands to support a fellowship that will allow a group of fellows and interns to pursue cutting edge research in various areas of bio-energy in US institutes of repute. This will help build capacity in clean and environmentally safe energy.

DBT established network of more than 100 scientists working to realize the goals of National Biofuel Policy with high quality research publication and patents for generated knowledge and developed technologies.

The Bioenergy program also includes establishing a major network of programs on algal biofuels. There are three repositories with more than 2,000 cultures that may be available for the algal biofuel program. This has been identified as an area for both bilateral and multilateral cooperation. Details on the Bioenergy Roadmap Vision 2020 can be found (www.dbtindia.nic.in).

Various projects under clean energy are provided to industries through Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council an interface agency of DBT to strengthen and empower the emerging Biotech enterprise. (www.birac.dbt.nic.in)

Solar, Wind, and Other Renewables

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is working on a solar wind hybrid policy, in which wind and solar can be co-located to maximize the utilization of transmission systems, reducing cost and increasing efficiency. They are also working to develop solar floaters indigenously. More information about the wind power program can be found (http://niwe.res.in) and more information about the solar mission can be found (http://nise.res.in).

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Hydrogen Energy Program is embarking upon the National Hydrogen Energy Road Map. This program supports research, development, and demonstration projects on various aspects of hydrogen energy including its production, storage and use as a fuel for generation for mechanical, thermal and electrical energy.  More information about the Hydrogen Energy Program can be found (www.mnre.gov.in).  The Department of Science and Technology is also embarking upon a national mission to utilize methanol and di-methyl ether as cleaner fuels in automobiles and fuel for fuel-cell based vehicles. Indianoil R&D centre has established a Hyrogen dispensing station and vehicles on Hydrogen are tested for endurance . This centre has also patented a technology to produce mixture of Hydrogen and methane by partial catalytic reforming of natural gas for fueling vehicles to reduce emissions.(www.iocl.com)

Cleaner Fossil Energy

With Mission Innovation, the Department of Science and Technology has developed plans to set up demand-oriented mission programs on clean coal technologies and has launched a national mission with plans to set up material research centres on advanced ultra-supercritical technologies. National programme on fuel quality upgradation for transport fuels , as detailed above, has helped greatly in reducing vehicular emissions. Biomass pyrolysis in combination with coal and petcoke and subsequent hydrotreating of the oil has been taken up by several institutes to produce clean sulphur free drop in fuels .( www.iocl.com )

A consortium has been formed among NTPC, BHEL and IGCAR –Kalpakkam for the indigenous development of Advanced Ultra Super Critical technology for high efficiency thermal power plants in India.

Carbon dioxide capture, utilization and storage

  • Carbon capture
  • Carbon storage and
  • Carbon utilization for value addition

Out of these three components , India has not much experience or large projects on carbon dioxide storage. However, Indian companies in power and oil sectors would like to collaborate in this area.

Carbon capture technologies either by growing algae or by capture in solvents / adsorbents have been studied by several institutes .

A large number of basic research projects have been undertaken in carbon dioxide value addition. Some of the priority areas are :

  • CO2 to organic products with organo-catalysis
  • Hydrogenation and reduction of CO2 with molecular catalysts
  • Reforming of CO2 to Syn gas
  • Production of polycarbonates
  • Catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to MeOH / DME
  • CO2 to alkyl carbamates as fuel components

Electricity Grid

The Department of Science and Technology is setting up a clean energy centre for integration of intermittent renewables with suitable energy storage in on grid or off grid situations.(www.dst.gov.in )

Research Priorities in Off Grid Electricity System:

  • Off grid electricity systems utilisingpolygenerationand also solar, wind, micro-hydel, biogas, and various other forms individually or hybridised for heating/cooling/thermal applications.
  • Augment the existing fossil with renewable sources including roof top solar as an off grid solution.
  • Frequency and voltage stability of off grid system and developing robust control algorithm.
  • Development and demonstration of affordable and sustainable solution/devices for wide application spectrum.
  • Village Distributed Energy resource (DER) Grid .
  • Hybrid distribution system (AC and DC grid).
  • Development of efficient DC appliances and smart centralized distribution control to ensure disciplined and efficient end use of energy.

Energy Storage

The Ministry of Power is working on flow batteries, which have larger potential for energy storage and are more efficient. A large  programmefocussed on development of materials for hydrogen storage has also been initiated by DST(www.dst.gov.in) and MNRE (www.mnre.gov.in).

Basic Energy Research

Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB) under the aegis of DST is mandated to promote basic research in all domains. Besides several individual-centric projects, SERB has funded advanced research centres in the area of improved combustion and battery technologies. Department of Biotechnology has been supporting fundamental research on innovative approaches that lead to intensification of biofuel. Emphasis has been on feedstock improvement (microalgae) and biochemical processes for conversion of biomass to biofuels and production of biofuel molecules/hydrocarbons using synthetic biology and genetic engineering, hydrogen production from autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms. Similar projects of basic research are also funded by CSIR .  However all basic research projects funded in clean energy area are focused and linked to eventual development of corresponding technologies and projects are closely monitored and reviewed.

International Cooperation in Clean Energy

  • Government of India has major international collaboration with countries for a large number of programmes such as UK, USA, Europe, Australia, Canada, Korea, etc. The Indo-US Joint Clean Energy Research and Development Centre is a public-private partnership in which Government of India and the US Department of Energy jointly supported three consortia on energy efficiency, solar, biofuels and the 4th consortia on Smart Grids and Energy Storage is currently under consideration. More information can be found (www.iusstf.org).
  • Specifically created centres on clean energy are encouraged for international cooperation and these centres have established research links and projects with appropriate international agencies.
  • Government of India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), and Department of Science and Technology (DST) currently has several centres of excellence dedicated to solar, wind, bioenergy and biofuel. As part of Mission Innovation, the Government has developed proposals for upgrading existing centres of excellence while also looking to create a centre for clean energy. Through Mission Innovation, the Government hopes to expand on current collaborations, both international and between the public and private sectors, to ensure that the centres of excellence are not limited to just the Indian public sector, but bringing in the private sector and other countries.
  • As part of Mission Innovation, the Department of Science and Technology is also setting up technical research centres on energy and has plans to set up two virtual centres on energy material research at the Indian Institute of Science and International Advanced Centre of Research (ARCI), a DST institute at Hyderabad.  Department of Biotechnology has planned to start a mission program on Algal Biofuel and Waste to Energy.

Baseline and Doubling Plans

  • Country-Determined Baseline Year(s): 2014-2015
  • Baseline Funding Amount: INR 470 crore (USD $72 million)
  • Doubling Target-Year: 2019-2020
  • Doubling Target Amount: INR 967 crore (USD $145 million)
  • First-Year Mission Innovation Funding Amount: INR 475 crore (USD $72 million)
  • First-Year Mission Innovation Funding Increment: INR 5 crore (USD $1 million)
  • First-Year Funding Percent Increase: 1.37%

Methodology for Determining Baseline

Baseline has been worked out on the data available for each of the priorities sector identified under Mission Innovation for fiscal year 2014-15 (base year) this includes all Government funding by different Department/Ministries for research, development demonstration activities.

Country-Definition of Clean Energy RD&D Investment

Research, Development and Demonstration in environmentally friendly, clean energy technologies including renewable energy, energy efficiency, Clean fossil technologies, electric grid technologies and advanced transportation systems and fuels and other crosscutting technologies. Investments are made through various models of joint collaboration involving Public Private Sector, National Laboratories, Universities and International Partners.

Overview of Clean Energy R&D Focus Areas Emphasized in Mission Innovation Portfolio

Industry & buildings

 

Vehicles & other transportation

 

Bio-based fuels & energy

 

Solar, wind & other renewables

 

Nuclear energy
Hydrogen & fuel cells

 

Cleaner fossil energy

 

CO2 capture, utilization & storage

 

Electricity grid

 

Energy storage

 

Basic energy research

 

Indicators are for key areas of Mission Innovation R&D investment but do not imply a comprehensive representation of a country’s full R&D portfolio.

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